Both Francis and Erdogan have publicly opposed US President Donald Trump's recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's official capital.
Pope Francis used a meeting with the President of Turkey on Monday to discuss the status of Jerusalem and urge the Turkish leader to pursue peace instead of war.
The Vatican is in favor of a two-state solution to the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians and hopes that both sides reach a consensus on the status of Jerusalem - which houses sacred sites for Muslims, Jews and Christians.
He said that the United States is "alone" in its decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital.
In a brief statement, the Holy See said Francis and Erdogan discussed the Middle East "with particular reference to the status of Jerusalem, highlighting the need to promote peace and stability in the region through dialogue and negotiation, with respect for human rights and global law".
Turkey chairs the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, which is made up of Muslim countries and territories.
Returning a visit made by the pope to Turkey in 2014, Erdogan spoke privately with Francis for about 50 minutes in the pontiff's frescoed study in the Vatican's Apostolic Palace, which he uses mostly for ceremonial purposes.
During the meeting between Erdoğan and Pope Francis, the importance of joint efforts against xenophobia and Islamophobia were also discussed.
At the end of the meet, Erdogan said he hoped that pope would keep him in his prayers.
The Pope also gave the president a copy of his encyclical letter, "Laudato Si'" on the care of creation, his 2018 message for the World Day of Peace and an engraving of what St Peter's Basilica and the square looked like in the 17th century.
"Under the pretext of the state of emergency and the fight against terrorism, tens of thousands of people have become victims of arbitrary repression that continues to worsen and that affects many groups within society, including lawyers, journalists, teachers, academics and researchers". The men are also expected to discuss Syria, Iraq, humanitarian aid and refugees. Rome also issued a 24-hour ban on demonstrations.
"No to Turkey in Europe", Brothers of Italy President Giorgia Meloni said.
Aside from Erdoğan and his wife, the Turkish delegation included Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu, Economy Minister Nihat Zeybekci and National Defense Minister Nurettin Canikli as well as EU Minister Ömer Çelik and Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Berat Albayrak.