The unique galaxy, called NGC 1052-DF2, contains at most 1/400th the amount of dark matter that astronomers had expected. Alternatively, the nearby massive elliptical galaxy NGC 1052 may have played a role in NGC1052-DF2's lack of dark matter billions of years ago when it was undergoing the early and violent stages of evolution.
This discovery is unpredicted by current theories on the distribution of dark matter and its influence on galaxy formation.
This might seem counterintuitive, but DF2 actually supports the existence of dark matter, which some theories argue doesn't exist.
The researchers involved are already working on some ideas about how to explain the missing dark matter and indeed how the galaxy might have formed and a starting point is to hunt for more dark-matter deficient galaxies. Dark issue appears to be should attract adequate product to create the galaxy and also its celebrities, and also halos of dark issue maintain galaxies from rotating apart as they revolve.
But more detailed observations by the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, a DIY-style observatory cobbled together from Canon camera lenses to study faint, extended objects in the sky, caught van Dokkum and his team's interest.
Some of the clearest evidence comes from tracking stars in the outer regions of galaxies, which consistently appear to be orbiting faster than their escape velocity, the threshold speed at which they ought to break free of the gravitational binds holding them in place and slingshot into space.
For comparison, astronomers have found that the Milky Way Galaxy has an amount of dark matter that's 30 times greater than all the matter we can see with our array of different telescopes.
The MOND theory - Modified Newtonian Dynamics - suggests that the phenomena usually attributed to dark matter can be explained by modifying the laws of gravity. With Gemini's help, the researchers ruled out interactions with other galaxies as being the cause of its weird dark matter deficit.
Yale University astronomer Pieter van Dokkum stumbled on the ancient galaxy that is "as big as the Milky Way but with only 1 percent of its stars", AP writes. They also say that they've identified a number of other galaxies that look fairly similar.
Theories that challenge dark matter's existence will need to explain away the new claim about galaxy NGC 1052-DF2 to survive. That stellar sparseness means it does not look much like a typical spiral galaxy, but rather a loosely connected, ghostly blob of star-pocked gas and dust. Some physicists have postulated that there is no such thing as dark matter, however, and that what we perceive as giant, starlight-bending clumps of heavy, invisible material is actually something else that is profoundly misunderstood.
If there is any dark matter at all, it's very little. What scientists know about it is that it's an elliptically shaped galaxy, which they have named NGC1052-DF2. But a small, distant galaxy is challenging everything we thought we knew about galaxy formation. This galaxy has very few numbers of stars but a large chunk of them are amalgamated together in bright clusters. "It is completely unknown how it is possible to form such a galaxy".
In addition, the absence of dark matter is not the only quirk of DF2.
Astronomers will be looking to find other galaxies in the universe. Future observatories under construction, such as the European Extremely Large Telescope in Chile's Atacama Desert, or NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, should be able to take such measurements.